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A democracy exists whenever those who are free and poor are in sovereign control of the government; an oligarchy when the control lies in the hands of the rich and better born.”--Aristotle

The study of pleasure and pain belongs to the providence of the political philosopher; for he is the architect of the end, with a view to which we call one thing bad and another good without qualification.--Aristotle


The dictates of utility [utilitarianism] are neither more nor less than the dictates of the most extensive and enlightened (that is, well-advised) benevolence.

Jeremy Bentham


There is something wrong in a government where they who do the most have the least. There is something wrong when honesty wears a rag, and rascality a robe; when the loving, the tender, eat a crust, while the infamous sit at banquets.

Robert G. Ingersoll


I firmly believe that if the whole material media could be sunk in the bottom of the sea, it would be all the better for mankind and all the worse for the fishes.

Harvard Medical School dean, Oliver Wendell Holmes


A prescription was something prescribed by the doctor while waiting for nature to cure the illness.


I sincerely believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to liberty than standing armies than standing armies. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of currency … the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of their property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.  The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.

—Thomas Jefferson, letter to the Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin, 1802. 


Woodrow Wilson’s statement of regret over his part in setting up the Federal Reserve banking system: 

[Our] great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.  Our system of credit is privately concentrated.  The growth of the nation, therefore, and all our activities are in the hands of a few men….who necessarily, by very reason of their own limitations, chill and check and destroy genuine economic freedom.  We have come to be on one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated governments in the civilized world-no government by free opinion.  No longer a government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and the duress of small groups of dominant men.—Woodrow Wilson. 


Congressman Louis McFadden on the Great Depression:  It was a carefully contrived occurrence:   international bankers sought to bring about a condition of despair, so that they might emerge the rulers of us all.  It is not our own citizens only that who are to receive the bounty of our government, more than 8 million of the stocks of this bank are held by foreigners.  Is there no danger to our liberty and independence in a bank that in its nature has so little to bind our bank to this country?  Controlling our currency, receiving our public money and holding thousands of our citizens independence would be more formidable and dangerous than a military power of our enemy.  If government would confine itself to equal protection, and has heaven does its rain and shower upon the high and low alike, the rich and poor, it would be an unqualified blessing.  In the act before me there seems to be a wide and unnecessary departure from these just principles.


Andrew Jackson statement on his vetoing the renewal of the charter of the National Bank, passed by congress 4-years early:

This worthy president thinks that because he has scalped Indians and imprisoned judges, he is to have his way with the bank, he is mistaken.  Nothing but widespread suffering will produce any affect upon Congress.  Our only safety is in pursuing a steady course of firm restriction--and I have no doubt that such a course will ultimately lead to restoration of the currency and the re-charter of the bank.

In so doing the bank brought on the threatened depression by calling in loans and refusing credit.  [Our revisionist history has placed its cause upon Jackson--jk.]  Jackson was officially censured by Congress.   News about the role of Biddle as cause of the crash resulted in Congress voting against renewal of the charter.  Biddle, President of the 2nd National Bank of the U.S.,  refused to testify before Congress.

“The Death of Lincoln was a disaster for Christendom.  There was no man in the United States great enough to wear his boots….. I feat that foreign bankers with their craftiness and tortuous tricks, they will entirely control the exuberant riches of America, and use it systematically to corrupt modern civilization.  They will not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos in order that the earth should become their inheritance.”--Otto von Bismarck on the death of Lincoln

At the Christian era the metallic money of the Roman Empire amounted to $1.8 billion.  By the end of the fifth century it had shrunk to less than $200 million.  History records no other such disastrous transition than that from the Roman Empire to the Dark Ages.--United State Silver Commission. 

A too great disproportion for its citizens weakens every state.  No one can doubt but such are equalities diminishes less from the happiness of the rich than it adds to that of the poor.—David Hume, Of Commerce, 1752. 

The division of the United States into federations of equal force was decided long before the Civil War by the high financial powers of Europe. These bankers were afraid that the United States, if they remained as one block, and as one nation, would attain economic and financial independence, which would upset their financial domination over the world--Otto von Bismark, Chancellor of Germany

Get Congress to pass a bill authorizing the printing of full legal tender treasury notes ... and pay your soldiers with them and go ahead and win the war with them also.  ... The people or anyone else will not have any choice in the matter, if you make them full legal tender. They will have the full sanction of the government and be just as good as any money; as Congress is given the express right by the Constitution.  [in 1862-63 President Lincoln printed up over 400 million dollars of the new bills, called Greenbacks because of the green color of the bill's back, and financed the Civil War - at no interest] -- Colonel Dick Taylor to President Abraham Lincoln about how to finance the Civil War

The Government should create, issue, and circulate all the currency and credit needed to satisfy the spending power of the Government and the buying power of consumers.  The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of Government, but it is the Government's greatest creative opportunity.  By the adoption of these principles ... the taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest. Money will cease to be master and become the servant of humanity--President Abraham Lincoln

If this mischievous financial policy which has its origin in North America, shall become endurated down to a fixture, then that Government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. The brains and wealth of all countries will go to North America. That country must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe -- editorial in the London Times about President Lincoln's issuing of full legal tender Treasury notes (Greenbacks) during the Civil War, 1962-63

At the Christian era the metallic money of the Roman Empire amounted to $1.8 billion.  By the end of the fifth century it had shrunk to less than $200 million.  History records no other such disastrous transition than that from the Roman Empire to the Dark Ages.--United State Silver Commission. 

A too great disproportion for its citizens weakens every state.  No one can doubt but such are equalities diminishes less from the happiness of the rich than it adds to that of the poor.—David Hume, Of Commerce, 1752. 

They who feed cloth, & lodge the whole body of the people, they themselves should be well fed, clothed and lodge . . . . But that government was the generating cause [of riots].  Instead of consolidating society, it divides it.  When the apparent cause of any riot may be, the real one is the want of happiness.  It shows that something is wrong in the system of government.—Adam Smith, Wealth of a Nation

On Adam Smith, author in 1776 of Wealth of a Nation. Smith favored lassie fare capitalism, the reason for so is put straight by professor Robins


Popular writing in this connection is far below the zero of knowledge or common decency.  On this plain not only is any real knowledge of the classical writers nonexistent, but their place has been taken by a set of mythological figures passing by the same names, but not infrequently invested with attitudes almost the exact reverse which the originals adopted.  These dummies are very malignant creatures indeed.  They are the tools or lackeys of the capitalist exploiters.  (I think that has the authentic stylistic flavor.)  They are extremely indifferent to the well being of the working classes.  Hence when a writer today wishes to present his own point of view in a special favorable setting, he has only to point to these constructs with the attitude of these reprehensible people and the desired effect is produced.  You’d be surprised how many well-known authors who have resorted to this device.


—Lionel Robins—1939, Lectures for the London School of Economics.  The English classical economists included the 2 great Scottish philosophers David Hume and Adam Smiths, and their followers.  Among their followers are Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, and John Stuart Mills.  Disc II, track 1, 1:30 ff.  Smith pointed out that whenever government (of England) interfered with trade it was at the behest of a special interest such as the sugar producers of Jamaica, and that such action invariable drove up prices, for which the poor suffered the most.  If intervention was for to bring market stability, better working conditions, or in other ways to promote to the public weal, then certainly Smith would have supported it. 


People of the same trade seldom meet together even for merriment or diversion, but their conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public or in some contrivance to raise prices.

Adam Smith, Wealth of a Nation


That which is carried on for the benefit of the rich and powerful is principally encouraged by the mercantile system, that which is carried on for the poor and indigent is too often neglected or oppressed. 

Adam Smith, Wealth of a Nation


The proposal of any new law or regulation of commerce that comes from this order ought to be listened to with great precaution and ought never to be adopted until after long and carefully examined not only with the suspicious and the most scrupulous attention.  It comes from an order of men whose interest is not exactly the same as that of the public, and generally have an interest to deceive and oppress the public, and accordingly on many occasions have deceived and oppressed it. 

Adam Smith, Wealth of a Nation


People of trade seldom meet together, but when they do, it ends in a conspiracy against the public.

Adam Smith, Wealth of a Nation


The south is before me and the bankers behind me, and for this country I fear the bankers more. 

Abraham Lincoln


Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil; in its worst state, an intolerable one. Government, like dress, is the badge of lost innocence; the palaces of kings are built upon the ruins of the bowers of paradise.

Thomas Paine (1739—1809), Common Sense, Ch. 1.


These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of men and women.

Id The Crisis, Intro, Dec. 1776.


My country is the world, and my religion is to do good.’

Thomas Paine, The Rights of man, Pt. ii, chapt 5 (1792)


Organized religion, political power, and legal institutions were now seen to be all part of the same system standing together both as objects for radical reform and as supreme obstacles to it.

Thought of Jeremy Bentham, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990, p. 3.


They [the clergy] believe that any portion of power confided to me, will be exerted in opposition to their schemes. And they believe rightly: for I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.
- Thomas Jefferson






Our judgment tis like our watches, each believes his own.

Benjamin Franklin, Autobiography


The money power preys upon the nation in times of peace and conspires against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy -- President Abraham Lincoln

The death of Lincoln was a disaster for Christendom. There was no man in the United States great enough to wear his boots ... I fear that foreign bankers with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America, and use it systematically to corrupt modern civilization. They will not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into was and chaos in order that the earth should become their inheritance -- German Chancellor Otto von Bismark

Whosoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce... And when you realize that the entire system is very easily controlled, one way or another, by a few powerful men at the top, you will not have to be told how periods of inflation and depression originate -- President James Garfield

This Act [Federal Reserve Act of 1913] establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President signs this bill, the invisible government by the Monetary Power will be legalized. The people may not know it immediately, but the day of reckoning is only a few years removed... The worst legislative crime of the ages is perpetrated by this banking bill. It can cause the pendulum of a rising and falling market to swing gently back and forth by slight changes in the discount rate, or cause violent fluctuations by a greater rate variation, and in either case it will possess inside information as to financial conditions and advance knowledge of the coming change, either up or down.  This is the strangest, most dangerous advantage ever placed in the hands of a special privilege class by any Government that ever existed.  The system is private, conducted for the sole purpose of obtaining the greatest possible profits from the use of other people's money.  They know in advance when to create panics to their advantage. They also know when to stop panic. Inflation and deflation work equally well for them when they control finance -- Representative Charles Lindberg (R-MN)

If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good, makes the bill good, also. The difference between the bond and the bill is the bond lets money brokers collect twice the amount of the bond and an additional 20%, where as the currency pays nobody but those who contribute directly in some useful way.  It is absurd to say that our country can issue $30 million in bonds and not $30 million in currency. Both are promises to pay, but one promise fattens the usurers and the other helps the people -- Thomas Edison

These International bankers and Rockefeller-Standard Oil interests control the majority of newspapers and the columns of these papers to club into submission or rive out of public office officials who refuse to do the bidding of the powerful corrupt cliques which compose the invisible government -- Theodore Roosevelt, New York Times, March 27, 1922

The real menace of our republic is this invisible government which like a giant octopus sprawls its slimy length over city, state, and nation ... It seizes in is long and powerful tentacles our executive officers, our legislative bodies, our schools, our courts, our newspapers, and every agency created for the pubic protection... [a]t the head of this octopus are the Rockefeller-Standard Oil interest and a small group of powerful banking houses generally referred to as the international bankers. The little coterie of powerful international bankers virtually run the United States government for their own selfish purposes.  They practically control both parties ... and resort to every device to place in nomination for high public office only such candidates as will be amenable to the dictates of corrupt big business...  These international bankers and Rockefeller-Standard Oil interests control the majority of newspapers and magazines in this country -- John Hylan, Mayor of New York - New York Times, March 26, 1922

For the best account of the Federal Reserve  (http://www.freedocumentaries.org/film.php?id=214).  One cannot understand U.S. politics, U.S. foreign policy, or the world-wide economic crisis unless one understands the role of the Federal Reserve Bank and its role in the financialization phenomena.  The same sort of national-banking relationships as in our country also exists in Japan and most of Europe. 


A democracy exists whenever those who are free and poor are in sovereign control of the government; an oligarchy when the control lies in the hands of the rich and better born.”—Aristotle

“All for ourselves, and nothing for anybody else,” Adam Smith called this the vile maximum of the masters of mankind.  Neoliberals call it, “trickle-down economics.” 


In 1963, John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 11110 which would have removed the power of money creation from all US private banks, including the privately-owned Federal Reserve, and invested that power in the US Government. Unfortunately, Kennedy died suddenly a few weeks later and his plans died with him.


The Problems of Debt

In the USA 100% of the money supply is created by the private banks. In Britain the figure is over 97%. In the rest of the world, the figure is estimated to be over 95%. All this money is created as a debt. It is created when people borrow money, as banks do not lend existing money; they just create new money out of thin air to lend.

Money created as a debt by the banks bears a charge of interest. This increases the amount of money that the economy owes by an amount greater than the amount in existence. This means that the economy is a saddled with a debt that can never be paid off, merely passed around like a game of Pass-the-Parcel in a Belfast pub. It is like a game of musical chairs, where someone has to lose out.


A Solution

Money does not have to be based on debt, nor indeed does it have to be based on precious metals. Real wealth is the goods and services that people create for each other. Money is merely a means of exchange. It could be created by HM Treasury and spent on providing public services, saving us all a modicum of taxation, and then the economy would not have to be saddled with large debts.

Executive Order 11110 issued by John F. Kennedy on June 4th 1963, from Wikipedia

This executive order allows the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury to issue $4.29 billion in silver certificates ($2 and $5 Notes) against silver bullion based on authority delegated by the President to the Secretary under the Thomas Amendment to the Agricultural Adjustment Act.


Silver certificates were printed without interest. The Order was for the Treasury to issue silver certificates against all silver held by the government which did not already have certificates against it. The Order was needed due to the passage of Public Law 88-36 which repealed the Silver Purchase Act and other related monetary measures. One result was that after the repeals, only the President could issue new silver certificates.  The Federal Reserve System could replace the certificates, but only in larger denominations. The thrust of the Order returned the authority to issue new silver certificates (and specify denominations) back to the U.S. Treasury.


This theory was further explored by U.S. Marine sniper and veteran police officer Craig Roberts in the 1994 book, Kill Zone.[28] Roberts theorized that the Executive Order was the beginning of a plan by Kennedy whose ultimate goal was to permanently do away with the United States Federal Reserve, and that Kennedy was murdered by a cabal of international bankers determined to foil this plan.  [jk finds this the most plausible of a dozen theories.  Kennedy had expressed extreme frustration of the Bay of Pigs failure and other issues with the CIA.  But it is hard to believe that the CIA would on its own, for to protect its power structure, kill the President.]

This executive order allowed for the Federal Reserve System to distribute and exchange currency at lower denominations that met the growing economic need. The authoritative basis for the Order was substantially nullified in 1982 with the passage of Public Law 97-258. The Order was never directly reversed, but in 1987, Executive Order 12608 [by Ronald Reagan] revoked the section that added by Executive Order 11110[1], essentially nullifying it.


Kennedy was killed by more than one shooter, and from 2 directions.  See Wikipedia Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories.


1)  Former U.S. Marine sniper Craig Roberts and Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Hathcock, who was the senior instructor for the U.S. Marine Corps Sniper Instructor School at Marine Corps Base Quantico in Quantico, Virginia, both said it could not be done as described by the FBI investigators. “Let me tell you what we did at Quantico,” Hathcock said. “We reconstructed the whole thing: the angle, the range, the moving target, the time limit, the obstacles, everything. I don’t know how many times we tried it, but we couldn’t duplicate what the Warren Commission said Oswald did. Now if I can’t do it, how in the world could a guy who was a non-qual on the rifle range and later only qualified 'marksman' do it?”[13]

2)  Robert McClelland, a physician in the emergency room who observed the head wound, testified that the back right part of the head was blown out with posterior cerebral tissue and some of the cerebellar tissue was missing. The size of the back head wound, according to his description, indicated it was an exit wound, and that a second shooter from the front delivered the fatal head shot.[11]

3)  Kennedy's death certificate located the bullet at the third thoracic vertebra — which is too low to have exited his throat.[14] Moreover, the bullet was traveling downward, since the shooter was by a sixth floor window. The autopsy cover sheet had a diagram of a body showing this same low placement at the third thoracic vertebra. The hole in back of Kennedy's shirt and jacket are also claimed to support a wound too low to be consistent with the Single Bullet Theory.[15][16]

These three facts are sufficient to prove that the Warren commission was a high-level cover-up




The Secrets of the Federal Reserve - Eustace Mullins
The Creature from Jekyll Island - the Federal Reserve - G. Edward Griffin
Web of Debt - The Shocking Truth About Our Money System - Ellen Hodgson Brown
The Case Against the Fed - Murray N. Rothbard

Naked Capitalist, The - W. Cleon Skousen
Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler - Anthony Sutton
A History of Money and Banking in the United States - Murray N. Rothbard

excerpts from the book 'Tragedy and Hope' - A History of the World in Our Time by Carroll Quigley, 1966


Follow the Money to Citibank
Dirty Laundry-Multinational banks as bagmen for global crime syndicates
U.S. Banks and the Dirty Money Empire
Shell Game - Citibank attacks money-laundering regulations
Explosive Revelations - banks, tax havens, and money laundering
Servicing Citi's Interests - GATS and the Bid to Remove Barriers
to Financial Firm GIobalization
Give Us 0.01 Percent - Tobin tax
The Federal Reserve (6/06)

Confessions of a banker - Following money trail through offshore operations of Citibank (8/06)
Federal Reserve Bank (3/07)
Credit as a Public Utility: the Key to Monetary Reform (5/07)

Who Owns The Federal Reserve? (10/08)
What Banks, Academics, the Media and Politicians Don't Tell You About Money - November 2008
The Federal Reserve Abolition Act (12/08)
Ground Zero on Wall Street - Nationalize Federal Reserve (12/08)
The Wall Street Ponzi Scheme called "Fractional Reserve" Banking (12/08)
Nationalize the Federal Reserve - "American Monetary Act" (2/09)
President Obama: Nationalize the Fed and Create Our Own Money (2/09)
A New Monetary System (3/09)
Thinking Positively About Monetary Policy - Nationalizing the Federal Reserve (3/09)

The Big Takeover - how Wall Street insiders are using the bailout to stage a revolution (4/09)
Revive Lincoln's Monetary Policy - an open letter to President Obama (4/09)
Top Senate Democrat: Bankers 'Own' the US Congress (5/09)
The Weimar Hyperinflation? Could it Happen Again? (5/09)
Manipulation: How Markets Really Work (5/09)
Ending Today's Economic Crisis Simply and Easily, in America and Globally (5/09)
What the Big Banks Have Won [Wall Street Bailout] (6/09)
Great American Bubble Machine - Goldman Sachs & market manipulation (7/09)



Teddy Roosevelt's advice that, "We must drive the special interests out of politics. The citizens of the United States must effectively control the mighty commercial forces which they have themselves called into being. There can be no effective control of corporations while their political activity remains."